Teori donald Black (Discrimination theory)

Donald Black informs the reader right away that his perspective is sociological. He is concerned with “social life” which means how society behaves. His explanations will therefore use sociological factors. Roughly, sociological factors represent the macro-level features and dimensions along which societies are organized. There are many of them. He announces the dimensions of society which will be of interest to him: [1])

1. the vertical dimension, which corresponds to socioeconomic status (SES) or social class;

2. the horizontal dimension, corresponds to race, ethnicity, and native-born vs. foreign-born status;

3. culture, which for the purposes of this course corresponds roughly to

decency;

4. organizational structure; if one of the parties in a dispute or a crime is a

group, or if both parties are groups, the degree of size and organization of the group or groups will be crucial; and

5. social control, which refers to the ways people get other people to stay in line without calling on the law.

Black introduces the vertical dimension of society, he says “Law varies directly with stratification”.[2]) Black uses the term distance to refer to their sociological distance from one another. That separation is taking place along the vertical dimension of SES, and he refers to this as “vertical distance”.[3])

Black leaves this point implied. Crime has a direction. If the victim is high SES (wealthy business person) and the offender is low SES (unemployed homeless person), the crime has an upward direction. You can describe it as upward crime. It was initiated by a low SES person against the property of a high SES person. Black talks about “upward law” and “downward law”.[4]) The state is acting on behalf of a victim, and is punishing an offender. So the law is going “from” the victim “to” the offender, and it is the state which is applying the law on behalf of the victim. So if the state is punishing a homeless person for a crime he committed against a wealthy business person, this is downward law for the upward crime.

Black also leaves this point implied. Law behaves on behalf of the victim. That victim may be an individual, a group, an organization, or the state itself. The direction in which law is applied is opposite to the direction of the crime itself. So if the crime “moves” upward the law will move in the opposite direction, downward. Black slips in a key point that is easy to overlook: “Upward crimes are more serious than downward crimes.” [5])

Black says “downward law is greater than upward law” he is saying that if there is an upward crime, it will be seen as more serious, and more law will be delivered – some is more likely to get arrested, more likely to be convicted, more likely to get a longer sentence – because the direction of the law is downward. [6]) If the feud is between higher status parties, more law will be delivered. If it is between two low SES parties, little law will probably be delivered.

Black introduces the organizational dimension of social life, how organizational factors and differences between organizations influence the behavior of law. Black describes organization as “the corporate aspect of social life, the capacity for collective action.

Black  is going to pursue this theme across many levels of analysis, from small groups “a couple or a gang of playmates” to “a family, or firm” to a “municipality, or state.” As with his previous focus on stratification, he will be looking at between-society differences and within-society differences. Black tells us “organization is a quantitative variable. Measures of organization include the presence and number of administrative officers, the centralization and continuity of decision making, and the quantity of collective action.”

Organizational levels and differences in organization, relate to how law behaves. “Organization explains aspects of law as well”.[7]) Black then tells us there are four ways organization and law connect. “The quantity of law varies with the organization and its environment, its direction in relation to differences in organization, and with the organization of law itself ”

In the same way that Black turned differences in SES between two parties into a vertical direction (upward or downward crime, upward or downward law), he also turns differences between degree of organization into a direction which he calls organizational direction. “Just as law may have vertical direction in relation to differences in rank … so it may have organizational direction in relation to differences in organizational status.” The highest level of organization would be a large multi-national corporation, or international agency. The lowest level would be an individual, who is not in a group, and has even less power than a small group. As before, the behavior of law is instigated by criminal behavior, or, more broadly, deviant behavior.[8]) So, as before, the direction of law will be opposite the direction of the crime or criminal behavior. Black tells us “law is greater in a direction toward less organization than toward more organization.” [9])

Black revisits the seriousness issue: “it is possible to rank the seriousness of deviant behavior according to its organizational location and direction.” [10])Law is more likely to run downhill, from greater toward lesser organizational capacity, because crimes against smaller organizations, or individuals, are seen as less serious than crimes against larger organizations committed by smaller organizations or individuals. It is these differences in perceived seriousness that are going to drive the differences in amount of law delivered. In short, more law runs “downhill,” being levied against less organizational capacity, than uphill, being levied against greater organizational capacity, because crimes against bigger organizations are seen as more serious than crimes against smaller organizations or individuals. Black’s says “Just as a robbery of a business is more serious than that of an individual, so a robbery of a supermarket is more serious than that of a small grocery store.” [11]) Law varies directly with organizational distance.[12])


[1])Donald Black, The Behavior of Law, (New York: Academic Press, 1976), hal. 1.

[2])Ibid., hal.13

[3])Ibid., hal.24

[4])Ibid., hal.21

[5])Ibid., hal.24

[6])Ibid., hal.21

 

Donald Black menginformasikan pembaca langsung bahwa perspektifnya adalah sosiologis. Dia prihatin dengan “kehidupan sosial” yang berarti bagaimana masyarakat berperilaku. Penjelasan-Nya itu akan menggunakan faktor sosiologis.Kira-kira, faktor sosiologis mewakili tingkat makro fitur dan dimensi sepanjang yang diselenggarakan masyarakat. Ada banyak dari mereka. Ia mengumumkan dimensi masyarakat yang akan menarik baginya: [1])
1. dimensi vertikal, yang sesuai dengan status sosial ekonomi (SES) atau kelas sosial;
2. dimensi horizontal,sesuai dengan ras, suku, dan status kelahiran asli vs lahir di negeri asing;
3. budaya, sesuai denagan kesopanan;
4. struktur organisasi, jika salah satu pihak yang bersengketa atau kejahatan adalah kelompok, atau jika kedua belah pihak adalah kelompok, tingkat ukuran dan organisasi kelompok atau kelompok akan sangat penting, dan
5. kontrol sosial, yang mengacu pada cara orang mendapatkan orang lain untuk menginap sesuai tanpa menyerukan hukum.
Black memperkenalkan dimensi vertikal masyarakat, ia mengatakan “Hukum bervariasi secara langsung dengan stratifikasi”. [2]) Black menggunakan jarak istilah untuk merujuk pada jarak sosiologis mereka dari satu sama lain. pemisahan itu berlangsung sepanjang dimensi vertikal SES, dan ia mengacu pada ini sebagai “jarak vertikal”. [3])
Black daun titik ini tersirat. Kejahatan memiliki arah. Jika korban SES tinggi (orang bisnis kaya) dan pelaku SES rendah (tunawisma menganggur), kejahatan memiliki arah ke atas. Anda dapat menggambarkannya sebagai kejahatan atas. Hal ini diprakarsai oleh orang SES rendah terhadap milik orang SES tinggi. Hitam berbicara tentang “hukum ke atas” dan “hukum ke bawah”. [4]) Negara bertindak atas nama korban, dan menghukum pelaku. Jadi hukum akan “dari” korban “untuk” pelaku, dan itu adalah negara yang menerapkan hukum atas nama korban. Jadi jika negara adalah menghukum orang tunawisma untuk kejahatan yang dilakukan terhadap orang bisnis kaya, ini adalah hukum ke bawah untuk ke atas kejahatan.
Black juga mengatakan secara tersirat,  Hukum berperilaku atas nama korban. Korban itu mungkin seorang individu, kelompok, organisasi, atau negara itu sendiri. Arah di mana hukum diterapkan adalah berlawanan dengan arah kejahatan itu sendiri. Jadi jika kejahatan itu “bergerak” ke atas hukum akan bergerak ke arah yang berlawanan, ke bawah. Black tergelincir dalam titik kunci yang mudah untuk mengabaikan: [5]) “ke atas kejahatan lebih serius daripada kejahatan ke bawah.”
Black mengatakan “hukum ke bawah lebih besar daripada hukum ke atas” ia mengatakan bahwa jika ada suatu kejahatan ke atas, akan terlihat sebagai lebih serius, dan hukum lebih akan dikirim – beberapa lebih mungkin untuk mendapatkan ditangkap, lebih mungkin dihukum , lebih mungkin untuk mendapatkan hukuman lebih lama – karena arah hukum adalah ke bawah. [6]) Jika permusuhan antara pihak status yang lebih tinggi, hukum lebih akan dikirim. Jika antara dua pihak SES rendah, hukum mungkin sedikit akan dikirimkan. Dalam membuat titik ini, Black tampaknya membingungkan jumlah hukum yang disampaikan oleh sebuah lembaga negara, seperti polisi atau hakim, dan kemampuan orang yang berbeda untuk merasakan theseriousness berbagai kejahatan; meskipun perbedaan, bagaimanapun, ada juga kesepakatan substansial seluruh masyarakat tentang keseriusan relatif kejahatan yang berbeda. Poin penting adalah bahwa norma ada dan berlaku secara  umum jika bukan anggota kelompok yang paling mematuhi itu.

[1])Donald Black, The Behavior of Law, (New York: Academic Press, 1976), hal. 1.

[2])Ibid., hal.13

[3])Ibid., hal.24

[4])Ibid., hal.21

[5])Ibid., hal.24

[6])Ibid., hal.21

Hasil Pencarian Anda:

1. teori donald black

2. donald black theory

3. teori diskriminasi dalam hukum

4. teori sosiologi hukum

5. teori perlakuan hukum

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